England, France, Wabanaki, Colonials

SOURCES:  Charles E. Clark, The Eastern Frontier: Settlement of Northern New England 1610-1763, Kenneth M. Morrison, The Embattled Northeast and John Reid, "Political Definitions" from Tad Baker et al. American Beginnings

1622 Grant of territory between Merrimack & Kennebec Rivers to Sir Ferdinando Gorges & Capt. Robert Mason by the Council for New England

1623 Settlement of colonies at Dover Point (NH) and mouth of the Piscataqua

1629 First NH patent. Division of the Gorges-Mason holdings at the Piscataqua River

1629-35 Laconia Company (Gorges/Mason) formed for inland fur trade; then focused on Piscataqua fishery until bankruptcy in 1635

1620s English merchants from New Plymouth establish trading posts on Kennebec River at Pentagoet

1630 Founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Start of ‘great migration’ of Puritans to New England including John Winthrop to Boston

1641-43 Absorption of Dover and Portsmouth by Massachusetts for strategic value of Piscataqua River due to Anglo-Dutch tensions (war 1652-54) and English Wabanaki tensions in Maine.

1658 Completion of Massachusetts campaign to secure capitulation of all settlements in Maine and "Lygonia"—submission of Scarborough (Black Point and Blue Point) and Falmouth (Spurwink and Casco)

1660 Restoration of English monarchy under Charles II

1664-66 King’s Commissioners in New England and etablishment of royal government in Maine

1666 Mogg "we can burn Boston"

1666 - The King’s Commissioners order a fort to be built at Fort Point, New Castle, over the objections of the Mass Gen. Court.

1667 Treaty of Breda restores Acadia to France specifically including Pentagoet1668 Re-establishment of Massachusetts authority in Maine

1670 Pentagoet is military HQ of Acadia and seat of Gov Hector de Grandfontaine; expected to extend jurisdiction over Kennebec and Pemaquid

1673 Grandfontaine dismissed because of participation in English trade he was to discourage

1674 Pentagoet destroyed by Dutch sea force. Port Royal becomes French HQ of Acadia. Jean Vincent d’Abbadie de Saint Castin escapes, takes refuge with Penobscot and marries Pidianske, daughter of Mackawando; resides at Pentagoet to resist English incursions.

1675 Sep Wabanaki-English war after drowning by English of infant son of Saco chief

1675-78 First Abenaki-English war and migration to the Jesuit mission at Sillery

1675-77 King Philip’s War expells English northeast of Falmouth, Maine as well as York

1676, 7 Sep,  Maj Waldron deceives Pennacook and MA refugees in ‘mock battle’ at Dover Point. 200 refugee captives sent to Boston; 7-8 executed.

1676, 6 Nov Mogg Hegon stops in Portsmouth en route to Boston to sign peace agreement (he was held hostage until the agreement was signed)

1678 Apr Treaty of Casco peace agreement allows English resettlement in exchange for payment of annual corn tribue to Wabanakis

1677-80s New fort at Pemaquid – outpost of English in northeast

1680-84 Maine bounded by Piscataqua & Kennebec Rivers, governed by MA. Represented at annual general assemblies of the province under Thomas Danforth

1680 Establishment of the royal province of New Hampshire

1684 Oct 13 Crown cancels Massachusetts colony charter

1686 Massachusetts and Maine incorporated as Dominion of New England governed for Crown by Sir Edmund Andros

1685 Accession of James II

1686 Establishment of the Dominion of New England under Sir Edmund Andros

1688 Glorious Revolution and the accession of William & Mary

1688 Outbreak of second Abenaki-English war. Wabanaki assisted by French. English raid on Wabanakis; captives sent to Boston leads to war.

1688 Andros raid on Castin at Pentagoet

1689 Overthrow of the Dominion of New England; temp return of NH to MA jurisdiction

1689-97 King William’s War (War of the League of Augsburg)

1689 2-3 Aug French-Abenaki attack on English at Pemaquid led by Jean-Vincent d’Abbadie de Saint-Castin, Father Thury and Chief Moxus (Bomazeen’s uncle)

1689, 27 Jun, Wabanaki-French attack on English at Cocheco (Dover) settlement. 23 settlers include Maj. Waldron killed and 29 taken captive.

1690 18 Mar 52 French soldiers from Trois Rivieres attack Salmon Falls; led by Sieur Hertel and Wahwa ("Hoophood") with 25 warriors

1690 20 May Hertel, Castin and Kennebec attack Fort Loyal, Casco Bay.

1691 New Massachusetts provincial charter includes all of Maine and Nova Scotia

1692 25 Jan Madokawando (daughter married Castin), led 150 Penobscot in attack on York. All lands north of Kittery and to within 70 miles of Boston controlled by Wabanaki. (Salem witch hysteria)

1692 Re-establishment of English royal government in New Hampshire

1693 Governor Phip’s Treaty/Treaty of Pemaquid" signed by 13 Abenaki including Madockawando and Egeremet

1694, Jul 18 French soldier Claude-Sébastien de Villieu with about 250 Abenakis from Norridgewock under command of Bomazeen raid English settlement Bomazeen/at Oyster River (Durham).  21 July, Wabanaki atack Ursula Cutt's farm pn the Piscataqua on the outskirts of Portsmouth. She is killed.

1694 Bomazeen enters Pemaquid with flag of truce. Seized and sent to Boston as prisoner.

1695, Jun Bomazeen tried in Boston 1696 Pemaquid (fort reconstructed 1692 by English) falls to French attack byCastin and 200 Penobscot 1696 26 Jun Attack by tribe from York on Portsmouth Plains. Fourteen persons were killed and others taken captive. Five houses and nine barns were burned

1686, 26 Jun. Wabanaki attack settlement at Sagamore Creek and then Portsmouth Plains. Take captives who are freed when English attack the band at "Breakfast Hill" in Rye.

1697 New Castle (NH) chartered as parish of Portsmouth

1698 Arrival of Samuel Moody at York

1699-1705 Castle at Fort Point rebuilt by Col Wolfgang Romer, a Dutch engineer, and renamed Fort William & Mary (1705)

1699 Temp revival of peace treaty between English and Wabanaki ushers in 4 years of peace

1701 29 Feb Meeting at New Harbor (Casco?) with members of First Nations at Penobscot and St. John’s: Weeomoghogmett, Manesek, Enockquwad, Cesboweawashed and Pemmehes -- including Moxus

1702 Sagadahoc Conference. Participants Gov. Dudley and Moxus.

1702 Accession of Queen Anne 1702-11 Queen Anne’s War (War of the Spanish Succession)

1703 Massachusetts Governor Dudley conference with tribal representatives urging neutrality.

1703 Outbreak of third Abenaki-English war. Many Wabanaki remove to Canada.

1703, 10-11 Aug Madokawando, Castin attack on Wells.Norridgewock tribe with Castin and Madokawando join a larger force of French and Indians, commanded by Alexandre Leneuf de Beaubassin, to attack Wells in the Northeast Coast Campaign. Little northeast of Wells (except Falmouth) left to English

1704 24 Feb Raid on Deerfield MA by Abenaki from Saint-Francois (I)

1704 13 Jun Abenaki at Cowasuck refused the offer of Governor Vaudreuil to resettle in the St. Lawrence Valley under protection of the French

1705 Col. Winthrop Hilton ad 275 English burn Norridgewok; Fr. Rasle warned and escaped.

1706 Attacks on Exeter and Dover, New Hampshire

1710 Attack on Saco, Maine (Bomazeen and 60-70 other men).

1710 Cyprian Southack in command of the Province Galley and 100 NH men assist in the siege of Port Royal, NS.


1713 Schism in the Portsmouth Church


 1713 Jul 11 Governor Dudley and members of MA and NH Councils meet at Portsmouth with Kirebenuit, Ileansis, and Jackoit of Penobscot; Josep and Ineas of St. John’s; and Warrancansit, Wadaeanaquin and Bummaseen of Kennebec.

1713 Jul 13 Meeting continues

1713 July 14 Treaty of Portsmouth signed at Piscataqua

1713 July 15 First Nations and Commissioners Wheelwright, Redknap and Phips for MA; Wentworth, Vaughn and Jaffry for NH depart New Castle for Casco Bay

1713 Jul 16 First assembly at Casco Bay with Commissioners and Moxus and Teramaugous of Kennebec, Wunungonet and Nudagumboin of Penobscot; Surragonet of Amoscoggin and Pierre of St. John’s identified

1713 Jul 18 Gathering of 180 men of the tribes to hear Treaty. French records report different tone than submission. "Never said anything to us."

1713 Jul 23 Report of Wheelright, Wentworth, Redknap, Vaughan, Jaffrey in Portsmouth

1714 Jan 11-16 Boston conference with Querabannity* and Quarrexis of Penobscot and Abomasun,* Warraquassit* and Ossamewanes of Norridgewoc

1714 Jul 23-28 Meeting of Eastern Indians in Portsmouth (Baxter Mss 23: 64-80), including Querabenawit

1714 Jul 28 "Second" Treaty of Portsmouth signed in Portsmouth

1714 Accession of George I

1716 Construction of the Macphaedris mansion ("Warner House") in Portsmouth

1716 Jun 6-7 Conference at Portsmouth, Lt Gov Vaughan w/Abombasein/Bamegiscog

1716-17 Appointment of John Wentworth as lieutenant governor of NH; Samuel Shute as Governor of Massachusetts

1717 Governor Shute’s Treaty

1717 12 Aug Georgetown Treaty with Wm Dudley and Wiwurna (pro-French) at Arrowsic

1721 28 Jul, 250 Abenakis in 90 canoes deliver letter at Georgetown addressed to Governor Samuel Shute, demanding that English settlers quit Abenaki lands

1722-25 "Dummer’s War" with the "eastern Indians"

1722 13 Jun Abenaki encouraged by Vandreuil (French) attack settlements below them on the Kennebec, burning Brunswick

1722 25 Jul Gov Samuel Shute declares war on "eastern Indians"

 1723 Jan English attack on Abenaki village of Norridgewock on western shore of Kennebec.

1724 23 Aug English attack Norridgewock. Fr. Rale, Mogg and Bomazeen killed. 150 survivors evacuate to St. Francis

1726 Peace Treaty at Casco Bay with the "eastern Indians" and establishment by MA of provincial truck houses for trade with the Indians

1727 Dummer’s Treaty

1731  Nov Robert Rogers born.